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ST. JOHN OF DAMASCUS

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Word Magazine April 1964 Page 5-9

ST. JOHN OF DAMASCUS

A Compendium on the Life and Works of St. John of Damascus Prepared On The Occasion Of The 55th Anniversary Of The Founding Of The Parish Of St. John Of Damascus Boston, Massachusetts,

December 4th, 1962

Prepared by: ARCHPRIEST PAUL W. MOSES

Dear Reader:

No brief work, such as this, can pretend to do justice to so great a champion of our faith as St. John of Damascus. Therefore, it is proper at the outset to acquaint the reader of this paper with certain facts.

Only two churches in the entire world, to our knowledge, are dedi­cated to St. John the Damascene. One is in his native city of Damas­cus, and the other is in Boston, Mass., U.S.A. He is commemorated, however, in all Orthodox churches on December 4th. The purpose here is to introduce, so to speak, members of our faith to this great patron of our church.

Most writings about St. John of Damascus are written in foreign languages such as Latin, Arabic, French, and German; and very few works in the English language give much account of him. He is known variously as Johannes Damascenus, Johannes von Damaskus, John Chry­sorroas (golden flow), and John the monk of St. Saba. These names may be used during the course of this paper.

In reading, one must understand that a person as great and as impor­tant as Saint John is often given credit for writing many things which he really may not have written. In the process of research it is learned that many hymns and sermons and other works have been attributed to him, but which are doubted as au­thentically done by him. Experts feel that literary style, characteristic expressions, mode of spiritual interpre­tation, historical facts, and other fac­tors rule many of these out completely. Perhaps it is just as well, for often these doubted works are un­able to reflect in a good way. On the other hand, it must also be consid­ered that not all of his manuscripts were found; and there must un­doubtedly be many works by him lost to the world forever. However the case may be, his accomplish­ments are tremendous and marvel­ous; and have earned for him a place of high honor forever in the Orthodox Faith.

We hope that this short paper is received by Orthodox Christians and others who read it as enthusiastically as it was prepared; and that it will bring some measure of enjoyment to all.

On His Biography

Only one biography was ever written about St. John of Damascus; and even that is not really satisfac­tory. It was written by one John Patriarch of Jerusalem, almost two hundred years after the lifetime of our patron. The author of this only existing biography lived in the 10th century, and was put to death by the Saracens around the year 969 AD. Therefore we must assume that he wrote according to certain docu­ments which he had at his disposal, filling in the blank portions with his own turgid, rhetorical style. Patri­arch John embodied all the rude and fragmentary accounts of our patron saint, which he had found preserved in the Arabic; and added his own reverend (possibly imaginative) ac­count of what St. John must have been like. Since it is the nearest ap­proach to St. John’s contemporary life that has ever been written, the abstract of this biography is here given.

(According To Patriarch John of Jerusalem)

St. John the Damascene was a brilliant star in the ecclesiastical firmament, shining with steady rays in the dark night of heresy. He was a champion of the faith, who re­fused to flee from the roaring turbu­lence existing in the church during his lifetime. He was a citizen of a great city. His city of Damascus was famed for its beautiful gardens and its rushing streams. Its streets had been trodden by the great Saint Paul, when he first became a Christ­ian. It had given birth to many noble men; but none more wise or more worthy than John. Like fra­grant flowers in the midst of thorns, such had been his forefathers amid the infidel conquerors of Damascus. Like Joseph or Daniel, their virtues had won for them the respect of their unbelieving rulers. They had been stewards in high trust among the Saracens.

As the father of John the Baptist had been a faithful servant of God, so was Sergius, the father of St. John. He was a man in high office, being appointed to administer the public affairs throughout the entire country. He was very wealthy; but he devoted all his riches to the good work of ransoming Christian cap­tives, and enabling them to find sub­sistence in the land to which they had been brought as slaves. His son was born during the year 676 AD.; and was baptized John after the great Baptist, even though baptiz­ing one’s child in those days risked the displeasure of the ruling powers, the Saracens. As John grew up he was taught, not to hunt or shoot with the bow, or ride, or throw the spear; but rather he was trained in things more fitted for his future call­ing. Facilities were limited in Da­mascus during the years of John’s youth, and his education was inter­rupted when he completed all the learning available from the teachers at hand. Nothing was more desired by his father than a good tutor for his son. Providence – in due time brought him just what he desired.

One day, among the captives which were brought into the slave market at Damascus, there was an Italian monk. His name was Cos­mas. This simple monk had such a reverend air about him and such a hearing of sincere love of God, that his fellow-prisoners were throwing themselves at his feet, begging him to bless them and to pray for them in their distress. It was no wonder that his captors were impressed with this old man. Sergius, St. John’s father, was standing by (for he often came to try to help these captives, especially when they were Christ­ians), and he observed what was happening. The monk was evidently scheduled to be executed since he was too old for any physical labor. Sergius saw the poor monk’s eyes filled with tears as he blessed and prayed for the others; and he drew near to question him. He learned that Cosmas did not fear death for its own sake, but he was distressed for the loss it would bring of all the learning he had painfully acquired. The wide knowledge of the Stagi­rite, the philosophy of Plato, all the stores of Grecian learning and theology were as an inheritance which he had laboriously won, and would now be lost by his death for want of a heir to succeed to it. Such a heir, such an intellectual son, he himself had not had the op­portunity of finding. Here, it was evident, was the very tutor for whom the father had so long searched. Sergius hastened with all speed to the caliph Abd al Malek, and ob­tained permission to set the monk Cosmas free. The old monk rejoiced; and gladly agreed to undertake to continue the education of John, and along with him a foster-brother also named Cosmas.

Under their new tutor and his ex­cellent instruction, the two young men made wonderful progress. In the science of numbers they vied with Pythagoras and Diophantus. In geometry they were almost as Eu­clids. Also with harmony, astronomy, and the other sciences they excelled greatly. Into all these, and into the “queen” of all, theology, John pene­trated with an intellectual vision as keen as the glance of the eagle when it meets the sun; and his foster-brother Cosmas (the younger) was also a brilliant companion in this learning. Years passed, and the time came when their tutor had imparted all he knew to the young students; and he felt that his work was done. With deep regret he resigned his office, and asked permission to re­tire once more into a monastery. He chose the laura of St. Sabas, and there spent the remainder of his life.

When John’s father died, he (known at that time as John Mansour) was called to the court of the caliph. He was placed in a very high office, even higher than his father had occupied, being made protosym­bulus, or chief councilor, the equiv­alent of “visir”. We must under­stand that during the occupation of the Saracens it was not unusual to have Christians as holders of high office in government, because they were often the only persons edu­cated well enough to handle the im­portant affairs of state. It was dur­ing these years of his public office that the great controversy on Image-worship broke out.

The Emperor Leo the Isaurian, the “roaring lion”, had issued his first edict against the practice (AD. 726). John, privy-councilor of Da­mascus, could not remain silent. He girded up his loins to the contest with a zeal like that of Elias in the days of Ahab. To arouse the ortho­dox faithful to resistance, he sent out circular letters to be passed from hand to hand among the Christians. This roused the anger of the em­peror. Since John was under the citizenship of the Saracens, and not the Roman empire, the emperor was unable to crush John by force of his imperial power. This might incur the wrath of his hostile enemy the caliph. Leo, therefore, refrained from this course of action. Instead, he used a stratagem. He had some­one intercept one of the auto­graphed letters of John of Damas­cus, and placed it in the hands of his scribes, that they might familiarize themselves with the form of the characters and the rudiments of ex­pression. He then had them concoct a letter, in imitation of John’s writ­ing. He had the letter appear to be addressed to himself (Emperor Leo), in which John was shown to propose a treasonable surrender of Damas­cus to troops of the emperor. Ac­cording to this forged letter, the Saracen guard at Damascus was weak and negligently kept, and if Leo would dispatch a band of reso­lute men he would capture the city with little trouble. John (so the let­ter ran) would aid in bringing about such a result. This forged letter, with another from the emperor himself, was then forwarded to the caliph. “Let the caliph beware of his Christ­ian subjects, when such were the proposals they were capable of mak­ing.”

When the caliph received this letter, he summoned John at once, and the letter was shown to him. John admitted that the writing was similar, but indignantly denied the authorship of it. His denial was in vain, and his appeal for a chance to prove his innocence was refused. The sentence was given that his offending right hand should be chopped off. This was done; and that same hand, which was previ­ously dipped in ink in defense of the truth, was now dipped in blood. When evening came, the pain of the wound became intolerable; and John ventured to petition the caliph for restitution of the amputated member, that it might receive burial, instead of being left hanging in the market place. Such rites of inter­ment might bring him the relief they did to Archytas. The desired request was granted, and the hand sent back. Then John, prostrating himself be­fore an Icon of the Blessed Virgin in his private chapel, poured out his soul in supplication, praying that the hand which he placed against his mutilated arm might grow again

to the limb from which it had been severed. He fell asleep, worn out with pain and weariness, and in a dream beheld the Holy Virgin signi­fying that his prayer had been heard. The vision came true. On starting up he found his hand to be indeed restored whole as the other.

The news of this miracle soon reached the ear of the caliph. Again John was summoned to his presence, and strictly questioned. His enemies tried in vain to explain it away; but the red line showing where the knife had cut still remained visible, and no earthly physician could h a v e wrought such a work of healing. The caliph was not only convinced that this was a miracle, but he pleaded with John to resume his former office as privy-councilor. But John sincerely asked to retire from public affairs, and his ruler yielded. And so . . . having disposed of all his worldly goods (which was much by way of wealth) he set out, accom­panied by his foster-brother Cosmas, for the convent of St. Sabas, situated on the south side of the “Wady en­-Nar” (Valley of Fire) some distance from the outskirts of Damascus.

On arriving there he was lovingly received by the abbot; but, for a while none of the inmates would un­dertake the task of training so dis­tinguished a novice. At last an aged monk was found willing. Taking the new-comer with him to his cell, he taught him the first principles of monastic obedience: to do nothing of his own private will, to pray inces­santly to God, to let his tears wash out the stains of bygone sins. Hard­est of all these, was the injunction to write to no one, to keep silence even from good words, and to remember the precepts of Pythagoras. A less earnest spirit might have broken down under such probation: but John was not one to flinch. The seed of instruc­tion was falling, in this case, neither among thorns nor on the rock, but into good ground. Yet harder trials still remained. The old monk bade him load his shoulders with baskets made by the monks of the convent, and to go with them to Damascus. There he was to offer them for sale at double their value, and on no ac­count to lower his price. With the fondness of Oriental nations for driv­ing a bargain, this fixedness of price would expose the vendor to abuse and ill-usage. But, undaunted, the once privy-councilor of Damascus trudged on under his burden, till he reached the streets of his old city. There he braved for hours the jeers and ridicule of all such as asked the price of his wares. At last, a former acquaintance, recognizing him in his squalid clothing, bought all the bas­kets out of compassion, and the nov­ice returned unvanquished to his task-master.

On another occasion, the brother of one of the monks who had died besought John to prepare a funeral hymn, as consolation to his feelings. At first John was afraid to comply with this request, for he feared trans­gressing the command of his super­ior: but at last he yielded to the mourner’s plea, and composed a short dirge:

“All mortal things are vanity and exist not after death. Riches endure not, neither doth glory accompany on the way; For when death cometh, all these things vanish utterly . . . etc.”

When the old monk, who was John’s instructor, heard the sound of music, he angrily reprimanded the novice and expelled him, as an in­subordinate, from his cell. The other monks interceded, but for a long time the elder was obdurate, and would listen to none of their pleas. At last he consented to name a penance as the condition of receiving the offend­er back: but it was such a humiliat­ing one, involving a menial labour so degrading, that the very monks them­selves stood aghast. John, however, had no scruples. He had felt as one driven from Paradise, and no servile labour should count too base for him, if only he might find the gate of en­trance open again. Thus he won the admiration of all, even of his severe teacher.

The time soon came when the pro­bation might cease. The old monk was warned by the Blessed Virgin in a dream, to check no longer the out­pouring of a spirit of song in his gifted pupil. The hymns of John Da­mascene were to be a joy of the whole Church, surpassing even the Song of Moses and the choral min­strelsy of Miriam. His exposition of the Faith, his refutation of heresies, would be as pillars of support on which the Church might lean. Thus admonished, the monk called John to him, and bade him give free course to the inspiration by which he was moved.

Thus set free at last, and with those pursuits now sanctioned to which he was by nature inclined, John gave full play to his voice and to his pen. Now were composed the great works on which his fame as a writer will forever rest: His “Fons Scientiae” (Fountain of Knowledge), his sermons, his hymns. In all of these he had, during the years, a great friend and adviser in his companion, the younger Cosmas, who was himself a fine poet and composer of hymns. In about the year 743 A.D. Cosmas was promoted to be Bishop of Maiuma, near Gaza in Palestine, and had to leave the monastery and his friend. John him­self had already been ordained to the holy priesthood some years before his foster-brother was made Bishop: but although he was given the rank of “presbyter”, he seldom left the mon­astery of St. Sabas. He ventured only far enough to sermonize in some of the various churches. He set himself the mental labour of diligently revis­ing and correcting his former writ­ings. Along with this he continued his work of preaching in defense of the sacred images, earning from his followers the title of “venerable and inspired”.

John of Damascus died at a very old age, the exact date of which is not known. And so ends this brief biography of the life of our patron as written by the Patriarch John of Jerusalem. He had very scanty ma­terials to work from, and he tried to compensate for the consequent scar­city of facts by enlargements and superficial conclusions from the writ­ings of Damascenus. On the incident of the cutting-off of John’s hand, it is chiefly considered to be “legen­dary” and “fabulous”. Such a story is thoroughly in keeping with the habits of thought in the Greek Church at the time. This does not say that this story has no credence but only that there is no real docu­mentary proof or dependable written testimony to substantiate its ever having happened. This is left up to the wish of the reader; and since it is the only biography of any pretensions which is extant, we must accept it for its real value and speculate on the rest.

On The Iconoclastic Controversy

Little need be said here regarding this controversy, except as it pertains to some of the writings of St. John of Damascus. During his fight against removal of Icons from the churches, he wrote a total of three “Apologies” or discourses. He said, among his most effective words. “I adore not the earthly material, but its Creator, who for my sake vouchsafed to dwell in an earthly tabernacle, and who by the earthly material wrought out my salvation”. He said that to forbid the rendering a share of honour to Christ and the Virgin Mary and all the Saints by veneration of their like­nesses, would degrade that human nature which Christ exalted by His very incarnation.

In 730 AD. emperor Leo issued another edict, which not only for­bade the worship of images, but which decreed that it was absolutely unlawful to have them in the churches. Any found there were to be destroyed, and the vacant spaces where they had been were to be washed over. Hearing of this, John composed his second address: and made it much stronger than the first one.

After Leo died, his son Constan­tine Copronymus was much worse. He ordered all who fought his edicts against images to be anathematized. “Anathema to Mansour,” ran the sentence, “cursed favourer of the Saracens, traitorous worshipper of images, wronger of Jesus Christ, and disloyal to the Empire! Anathema to Mansour, teacher of impiety, and bad interpreter of Scripture!” Addi­tional insults were devised by the emperor, causing John’s last name to be written “Manzer” instead of Man­sour—which was a terrible and in­sulting word.

Constantine Copronymus died in 775, and his son, Leo IV only reigned four and one half years. Constantine VI became the new emperor; and, being only 10 years of age, his mother (empress Irene) was left as regent during the minority of her son. She directed the 7th ecumenical Council to be assembled in Nicaea in 787, where it was decided that, “even as the figure of the cross was honoured, so images of the Saviour and Blessed Virgin, of angels and of saints, whether painted or mosaic, or of any other suitable material, are to be set up for kissing and other honourable

reverence, but not for that real wor­ship which belongs to the Divine na­ture alone. Thus was the matter set­tled (probably not too many years after the death of our patron).

On His Writings

Of St. John of Damascus it might almost be said that his written works constitute his life’s story for us. There is no settled order of chronology to his writings, although according to John of Jerusalem, the letters of “Apology” written against the icon­oclasts were composed before his monastic life. Let us now treat the matter of his “Fons Scientiae” or Fountain of Knowledge.

The “Fons Scientiae” is actually a group of three works, each complete in itself, but forming together an en­cyclopedia of Christian theology. They are: (1) “Capita Philosophi­ca” or Heads of Philosophy, (2) “De Haeresibus Liber” or Summary of Heresies, (3), and “Expositio accu­rata Fedei Orthodoxae” or An Exact Exposition of the Orthodox Faith.

Capita Philosophica:

This work consists of a series of short chapters (68 in all) on the cat­egories of Aristotle, and the Univer­sals of Porphyry. Here he indicates the uses of logic and dialetic as in­struments of philosophy; and does so in a six-fold definition of philosophy, dividing this field of learning into Speculative Philosophy and Practical Philosophy. He further sub-divides these into Speculative: Theology, Physiology, and Mathematics: and Practical: Ethics, Economics, and Politics. No detailed account of this marvelous work shall be further at­tempted here, as it would serve no purpose. We should realize, however, that very few works of Aristotle were known in Europe until the beginning of the 12th century: yet here we have our patron familiar with them and employing them in the 8th century. This shows the truly remarkable im­portance of his work in the history of philosophical inquiry.

De Haeresibus Liber:

In this work. St. John. in his in­troductory remarks, disclaims all pre­tense to originality. It is little more than a transcript of a similar work by Epiphanius of the 4th century, with some additions by Damascenus himself. Epiphanius, in his work, had enumerated 80 sects, or heresies, be­ginning with pagan Greeks and end­ing with the Massalians. All these re­appear in the work of St. John, and are followed by 23 more drawn from Timotheus Presbyter, and others.

De Fide Orthodoxa:

This third work in his Fons Scien­tiae is the most important of all, for it is the first complete “Body of Di­vinity” that we possess, and has had an influence that simply cannot be measured. It was made known to the Latin Church in 1150 A.D. and greatly influenced the works and thoughts of St. Thomas Aquinas (the father of Latin Theology). Here we see the first visible link between the Church of the East and the Church of the West. This De Fide Orthodoxa is itself divided into 4 books, or 100 chapters. It is interest­ing to note that De Fide was not available in 1882, but is today trans­lated and available to all students of Orthodoxy. In it St. John touches upon such subjects as: (a) The impossibility of our knowing or compre­hending God, (b) On the Trinity: the distinct personality of the Word and Holy Spirit, (c) On the creation. (d) On man: his creation, faculties, passions, free will, (e) God’s scheme for man’s redemption. . . and so on.

“Proof that there is a God”

EXCERPT: Book I, Ch. III.

“That there is a God, then, is no matter of doubt to those who receive the Holy Scripture, the Old Testa­ment, I mean, and the New; nor in­deed to most of the Greeks. For, as we said, the knowledge of the exist­ence of God is implanted in us by nature. But since the wickedness of the Evil One had prevailed so mightily against man’s nature as even to drive some into denying the existence of God, that most foolish and woefulest pit of destruction (whose folly David, revealed of the Divine meaning, exposed when he said, ‘The fool said in his heart. There is no God’), so the disciples of the Lord and His Apostles, Made wise by the Holy Spirit and working wonders in His Power . . etc”

On The Mahometan Controversy:

Here St. John writes two beauti­ful dialogues or disputations between a Christian and a Saracen. By means of this ingenious dialogue he brings forth the reasons why Christianity is right for man while Mahometanism is a false teaching. This work is not of extreme importance except as it

sheds light upon the various facets of his work, and leaves us impressed with his great ability in the employ­ment of varied literary devices.

On His Sermons:

The work of St. John of Damascus as a preacher does not fill any great space in the record. In fact, it is un­certain whether he actually delivered the sermons which he composed, or whether others delivered some of them for him, or whether he merely wrote them as rhetorical or devotional ex­ercises. He wrote sermons on such topics as: “The Withered Fig Tree”, “The Transfiguration”, “Good Fri­day”, and some 11 others. Under the general heading of “Homiliae” there are known to be 13 complete dis­courses and the fragment of a four­teenth. The genuineness of some of these are doubtful . . . in other words, it is doubted that St. John was the actual author of them all. In addi­tion to the three listed above, there is one on the topic “Holy Saturday”, two on the Annunciation (both doubtful), two on the Nativity of the Virgin Mary, three on her Falling Asleep, one on St. Chrysostom, and one on St. Barbara. The fourteenth fragment is merely another version of one of the others on the Nativity of the Virgin.

EXCERPT: from sermon, “Good Friday.”

“I could have wished to pass over the story, so often has it been related to you. But the robber is before my eyes, ever forcing me. And no marvel: for he forced even the gates of paradise, turning his robber’s skill to his own preservation. There we behold standing on the Cross the Lamb between two wolves. But the one of them continued in his former mind, the other repented. ‘Remember me, he said, when Thou comest into Thy

kingdom’. Oh! the power of Jesus. The robber is now a prophet, and this is his message from the cross: ‘Remember me, Lord, when Thou comest in Thy kingdom.’ Why, what emblems of royalty dost thou see, poor robber? buffetings, spittings, nails, the cross of wood, the scoffs of the Jews, the lance of the soldier now bared for its work? ‘yea, but’, saith he, ‘I see not these things that do ap­pear. I see angels standing around, I see the sun hiding its face, the veil of the temple rent, the earth shaking, the dead preparing to flee’. And Jesus, that receiveth all, even those who come at the eleventh hour to prophesy in his name, and giveth them their penny, as being alike workers, saith to him, ‘Amen, poor robber! today a robber, today a son. Today shalt thou be with me in par­adise’ . . . etc.”

On His Hymns:

Without all his other accomplish­ments, his hymns and musical com­positions would alone have been sufficient monuments to make St. John of Damascus forever remem­bered in Orthodoxy. It is a lasting glory to any Christian poet to have given to the church any single song: but St. John gave us many. The most famous is by far his canon for Easter Day; for it is not only a single song, but is the song of triumph and thanksgiving with which this greatest of days in the Church’s year is cele­brated.

EXCERPT: “Easter Canon”. . . Ode One.

first stanza . . . Tone I.

“Today is the Day of Resurrec­tion! ! O nations, let us shine forth:

for the Passover of the Lord, in that Christ did make us pass from

death to life, and from earth to heaven, who now sing the song of

victory and triumph . . . etc.”

Many of his hymns have been found in various old manuscripts. Here is a listing of a few: Hymns in iambic metre on the “Theogonia” (birth of Christ), the “Theophania” (Epiphany), the “Pentecost”: can­ons on Easter, the Ascension, the Transfiguration, the Annunciation:

prayers in anacreontics: canon on the Assumption; Idiomela used in the Office for Burial of the Dead : canons in classical metres and rythmical prose. There are only a few. Some scholarly writers say that St. John the Damas­cene must be considered the author both of Eastern Church music, and of the system of notation used for it. To him is ascribed the composition of the book known as the “Octoe­chos”, in which the eight separate tones of the church are contained along with the musical portions used on Sundays. Some of these things attributed to him may be somewhat ex­aggerated, as is always possible in so complicated a matter as the recon­structing of a man’s works centuries after he himself is dead and gone, leaving only few traces. But the very belief that exaggeration exists re­garding his services, testifies to the high repute in which his merits as a hymn-writer were held. Manuscripts of the “Octoechos”, some with an­cient musical notations, are pre­served in the Imperial Libraries of Paris and Vienna.

Concerning His Commentaries:

The 8th century has sometimes been reckoned a part of the dark ages: and many historians assert that great ignorance of Holy Scripture was then prevailing. It becomes in­structive, therefore, to observe how, during these very times (dark ages) John of Damascus in the Eastern Church was busy at the task of Bib­lical exposition.

In the main, his commentaries are compilations, meant rather to be practically useful than to reflect credit on the author; but they appear to have been so altered and added to, that it is difficult to discern the lines of the original workmanship. The original idea of Damascenus was not that of an alphabetical concordance of subjects, but of an arrangement in three books; of which the first was to treat of God and the Holy Trinity, the second of human affairs, and the third of virtues and vices. The first book is titled “Loci Selecti” and the other two books are given the same title—”Sacra Parallela.” All together they comprise some 125 passages from Scripture along with their ex­position.

On Natural Science:

It would be out of place to expect from St. John Damascenus anything of the nature of true scientific en­quiry. He does not profess to be a dis­coverer, but only a collector and pre­server of the knowledge gained by others. He performs individually somewhat of the same office that his native country has done on a wider scale—he has been a transmitter. He was a scholar of Aristotle’s works, of Ptolemy, and many others. There is good reason to maintain that it was through him, and other Syrian Chris­tians like him, that the chain of an­cient learning continued unbroken. What Edessa was, as a link between Alexandria and Baghdad, such was John of Damascus between the Greek philosophers and the Saracen con­querors. He is described by some writers as an “Arabian physician.” Some of the subjects he touches upon are: Diophantine arithmetic (germ of modern algebra), the Organum of Aristotle, the astronomical system of Ptolemy, the nature of air and wind, waters of the world, the measure­ments of three continents, thunder, lightning, description of man and his bodily nature, and many others.

Doubtful Writings:

‘There are two works which are written in the familiar style of St. John, but which cannot be consid­ered (as without doubt) genuine. The first is a lovely romantic story titled “Barlaam and Joasaph”; and is truly a delight to read. The second work is a “Panogyric (Eulogy) on St. Barbara.” This second work, while seeming to bear his seal of workman­ship, is too fabulous for words. By this is meant: it often borders on the unbelievable, and would test the credulity of the most unbounded. But these two works are mentioned be­cause their doubtful origin does not relieve St. John from the responsibil­ity for them. He begins “St. Barbara” (if it is his work) with the words, “Tis said,” and frequently inserts, “so runs the story,” which frees him at least from the charge of originating it. To one living as he did, in an age of desolating wars, when the sword of the successors of Mahomet seemed to promise the destruction of Chris­tianity from the earth, the mind of a simple monk at St. Saba’s convent must have been susceptible to such stories of constancy under persecu­tions, and perhaps he was less critical than we can today afford to be.

In Conclusion

As a preserver of ancient learning in such an age as above mentioned, the world will ever be indebted to St. John of Damascus. He has left us something approaching a system of logic, of ethics, and of natural philos­ophy; and his effort in the depart­ment of theology is full and com­plete. He is chiefly a framer of sys­tems: his work is of the nature of an encyclopedia. He made theology a part of philosophy, applying it to a philosophic method. He was the pro­genitor of scholasticism: and it is al­most a unanimous verdict that the great treatise on “De Fide Ortho­doxa” was the starting point of the scholastic system.

No one will dispute the reality of the service performed by Damascen­us who, when caliphs were striving to impose the Arabic tongue on Syria and other Asiatic conquests, helped so materially to keep the lamp of Greek learning from extinction. Gregory of Nazianzus. whose writ­ings were of classic elegance, was the master of John the Damascene. John’s preservation of the quotations of Gregory, and of those of a multi­tude of Greek authors, would have (in itself been sufficient for the wants of his generation, without any mention of his other vast works. As a hymn-writer, there can be no ques­tion of the high place to be assigned to John Damascene. He was rever­ently referred to as “chief of the Greek hymnodists.” His services will not be forgotten as the preserver of ancient learning, as the gatherer of Christian doctrines into a system, as the opponent alike of imperialisms and Mahometanism, as the Doctor of Christian art.

To him are due all praise and tribute. Truly, such praise has for ages been awarded by the Eastern Church to this humble monk, this “brilliant star in the ecclesiastical firmament.” our patron and our guardian . . . . our beloved St. John of Damascus.

Note: Most of this paper is prepared from a rare English translation, St. John of Damascus, by Rev. J. H. Lupton. MA.. published by Society For Promoting Chris­tian Knowledge, London, England. 1882. Some brief portions were also taken from personally owned books.